*In a real spin ...*Magnetic moment of spinning classical charge,

*M*= (1/2)

*qs/m*

Where

*q*is observed (shielded) electron charge,

*s*is spin (discussed below a couple of posts back), and

*m*is the observed mass of an electron.

Dirac's quantum field theory multiplies this by a factor of 2 to get the proper magnetic moment of an electron. But still it is not very accurate to meet experiment, so we use the 1st Feynman coupling term for virtual charge to give a more precise correction factor, 2[1 + 1/(2.Pi.137)]. (Let's ignore more coupling terms for the moment, as we are happy with accuracy to 6 s.f.)

I'm content now that the veil shield of polarised vacuum leptons (which shields the

*electric field*from the electron core by a factor of just over 137) has no significant effect on the polar

*magnetic field*from the electron core. The full task of identifying the causal process in the quantum 'foam' spacetime fabric which gives rise to each mathematical coupling correction remains ahead.

For the moment, let's worry about the size, shape, and range of the polarised virtual particle shells surrounding the core. An electric field line is defined by convention as an arrow from a positive charge towards a negative one. So we have an inward arrow from the positive virtual charge shell around the negative core, and an outward arrow between the outer negative virtual shell and the inner positive shell. Since the shielding factor is massive, 137, the arrows are pretty similar in length to look at visually. The polarised shells are stopping 99.27 % of the electric field from the core of the electron.

How long will it take to get around to working out the details, the sizes of the shells? No idea. There are actually quite a few unknowns to deal with. We can hope that the assumptions will be few due to the way in which mathematical unknowns can be cancelled out to give a definite answer. (See my home page for the gravity proof which uses this fact.) While there is no evidence that the Great Architect of the universe is a

*mathematician*(

*J.B.S. Haldane said, by analogy, that God must be a beetle-lover, because of the vast number of beetle species on Earth*), the use of mathematics for understanding things easily is essential. Without maths, you would have be be extremely clever to understand the atom or anything else realistically!

**Update: Dr Motl reports discovery of extra dimensions in India: http://motls.blogspot.com/2005/10/news-on-string-theory-in-media.html**

**(Presumably this refers to the warping around the black hole of Calcutta?)**

## 2 Comments:

Hi there,

I am an undergraduate physics student in New Zealand.

I’m not sure if this is right place to post this but I was wondering if you ‘expert’ physicists could have a look around my weblog and if there are misunderstandings in the articles that I write, to correct me. I’m only a junior in University so I have a lot more to learn and I think your comments or criticism or feedback will help me learn A LOT more. Thanks!

http://precondition.blogspot.com

By the way, the factor of 2 multiplication that is given by Dirac is normally attributed vaguely to the effect of relativity.

However, when you look at the abstruse role of relativity mathematically in the Dirac formula, and particularly when you look at what I say about the 'theory of relativity' as perceived by ether-enthusiast Dirac and others (see earlier posts on this blog!), you want a more causal interpretation.

Heuristically, by trial-and-error, we get a model for the electron core (or virtual electron) that looks like this:

Electron core etc

In the older picture, the magnetism arises from the motion of electron spin lines, so with spin around an axis you classically get only half the magnetic field that the heuristic model (and Dirac equation) predicts.

The electric field lines protruding from the poles of the rotating spherical (classical) electron cannot contribute anything at all to the magnetic field. The factor of 2 arises because the real electron core or virtual electron is a TEM wave loop, a negative field part of a light ray. In this situation, E = cB, with E electric field (volts/metre), c light velocity (m/s), and B magnetic field (Teslas). All three things, E, c, and B are at right angles to each other. Naturally, for forces to be physically communicated along electric and magnetic field lines, energy passes along these and is normally in equilibrium (equal energy flows in each direction). Forces occur when circumstances conspire to disturb the equilibrium, such as when some charge blocks an energy exchange route and is thus pushed towards another (by gaining momentum, which is carried by the TEM wave, TEM standing for "transverse electromagnetic").

The 2 factor is the area of a hemisphere divided by the area of a circle with identical radius. (When you have a surface burst nuclear explosion, gamma rays by the Compton effect knock electrons out of air molecules, creating an outward compton current. The net UPWARD compton current in a surface burst is exactly half the total (hemispherical) compton current in the air, because the currents going horizontally along the ground contribute nothing at all. The factor of 2 is either the result of geometrically looking at a picture of the lines and seeing that the net result is the ratio of the area of a circle to a hemisphere, or is the complicated result of using calculus to integrate some finction of cos A, over angles from 0 to 90 degrees.)

Feynman gravity home page

Cheers,

Nigel

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