The universe is receding; galaxies apart from a few nearby galaxies like Andromeda, all have a red shift. While there are speculations that the red shift may be tired light, there is no mechanism and no evidence of this from the spectrum of the red shifted light. In fact, the best ever experimental black body radiation spectrum was obtained by the cosmic background explorer satellite in 1992 from the 2.7 K (microwave) red-shifted 3,000 K (infrared) big bang radiation flash. This frequency spectrum was uniformly reduced by over 1,000 times by red shift, not by the effects of scattering of radiation (scattering is frequency-dependent). It was emitted about 300,000 years after the big bang. The three pieces of evidence for the big bang, namely (1) red shifts, (2) microwave background spectrum, and (3) the abundance of hydrogen, deuterium and helium in the universe are conclusive proof of the big bang in general. The purpose of this paper is to establish a fourth piece of evidence and to clarify what more we can learn from the big bang by proved experiments rather than by speculation.
Notice that the big bang recession velocity rises with observed distance. We always see the sun 8.3 minutes ago, the next nearest stars over 4 years ago and so on. But because of recession during this travel time, the observed distance is not the real distance (which increases while the light is on the way to us!). All we can directly work out is the time in the past when the light was emitted (hence distances expressed as light years). Edwin Hubble, 1929, claimed to observe constant ‘speed/distance’ or 1/time. In fact, he should have reported constant ‘observed speed/observed time past’ or acceleration of the big bang. Therefore from Newton’s 2nd empirical law (mass times acceleration is force) the big bang is a real explosion with a force of 7 x 1043 Newtons. Now examine the consequences of Hubble’s serious error.
Newton’s 3rd empirical law states outward force has an equal and opposite reaction (inward or implosive force). The bomb dropped on Nagasaki used TNT around plutonium, an ‘implosion’ bomb. Half the force acted inward, an implosion that compressed the plutonium. The inward or implosion force of the big bang is apparently physical space pressure. Fundamental particles behave as small black holes (electrons, quarks) which shield space pressure. They are therefore pressed from all sides equally except the shielded side, so they are pushed towards masses (illustration below). The proof (http://members.lycos.co.uk/nigelbryancook/) predicts gravity. A calculation using black hole electrons and quarks gives identical results.
This inward pressure makes the radius of the earth contract by a distance of 1.5-mm. This was predicted by Einstein’s general relativity, which Einstein in 1920 at Leyden University said proved that: ‘according to the general theory of relativity, space without ether [physical fabric] is unthinkable.’ The radius contraction, discussed further down this page, is GM/(3c2). (Professor Feynman makes a confused mess of it in his relevant volume of Lectures, c42 p6, where he gives his equation 42.3 correctly for excess radius being equal to predicted radius minus measured radius, but then on the same page in the text says ‘… actual radius exceeded the predicted radius …’ Talking about ‘curvature’ when dealing with radii is not helpful and probably caused the confusion. The use of Minkowski light ray diagrams and string ‘theory’ to obfuscate the cause of gravity with talk over ‘curved space’ stems to the false model of space by the surface of a waterbed, in which heavy objects roll towards one another. This model when extended to volume type, real, space shows that space has a pressurised fabric which is shielded by mass, causing gravity.) But despite this insight, Einstein unfortunately overlooked the Hubble acceleration problem and failed to make the link with the big bang, the mechanism of gravity, which is proved below experimentally with step by step mathematics.
Dr t’Hooft has suggested that the holographic conjecture (based on Bekenstein bound) implies that a 5-D spacetime is equivalent to 4-D spacetime with the spacetime fabric as fifth dimension. Dr Jacob D. Bekenstein says (http://www.essentia.com/discovery/holographic_spacetime.htm):‘Superstring theory rules in the 5-D spacetime, but a so-called conformal field theory of point particles operates on the 4-D hologram. A black hole in the 5-D spacetime is equivalent to hot radiation on the hologram--for example, the hole and the radiation have the same entropy even though the physical origin of the entropy is completely different for each case.’
Holography is the encoding of information from a larger number of dimensions into fewer dimensions, eg a 3-D image by holography exists on a 2-D photo. The spacetime fabric as the fifth dimension appears real to us, and we can treat it by the laws of causality for a perfect fluid. Because it travels with light speed, gravity has the same speed, and does not disperse into shadows like gas pressure. There is powerful evidence that simple pressure calculations will give the right strengths for long-range fundamental forces, using cosmology data as the input.
The two long range forces, electromagnetism and gravitation, will require two aspects of the spacetime fabric field. The kinetic field, like gas pressure, to produce gravity/inertia (both the same by the equivalence principle), and the virtual radiation will produce electromagnetic forces.
‘You will say to me… "Do you mean to tell me that a planet looks at the sun, sees how far it is, calculates the inverse square law of the distance and then decides to move in accordance with that law?" In other words, although I have stated the mathematical law, I have given no clue about the mechanism.’ – R.P. Feynman, ‘The Character of Physical Law’, BBC, London, 1965, p. 33 (Feynman then presented a push gravity cause with a diagram, but it had problems.)