Heuristic explanation of short-ranged nuclear forces and unification
Conservation of energy for all the force field mediators would imply that the fall in the strength of the strong force would be accompanied by the rise in the strength of the electroweak force (which increases as the bare charge is exposed when the polarised vacuum shield breaks down in high energy collisions), which implies that forces unify exactly without needing supersymmetry (SUSY).
Above: what the fuss is all about, the unification of strong, electromagnetic, and weak forces at high energy. The Standard Model is well tested, but doesn't predict a neat unification into a single 'superforce' at high energy unless there is a 1:1 boson:fermion supersymmetry. Tony Smith has classified some of the stringy theories which attempt to deal with this issue. However, why force nature to become a superforce at 10^15 GeV, when you don't know that such a superforce exists, you have no way to test it because it is so many orders of magnitude higher than even an earth-sized particle accelerator could attain, and you don't see any superpartners anyway? Notice that the mechanism proved on this blog and linked site is ignored, and suppressed from arxiv by mainstream string theorists. What I'm doing is building on known facts. There is good evidence from Koltick's experiments that the electroweak forces increase with collision energy, as I've discussed in previous posts (see also here and here and here) and that the strong nuclear force decreases with increasing collision energy. At low energies, the experimentally determined strong nuclear force strength is alpha = 1 (which is about 137 times the Coulomb law), but it falls to alpha = 0.35 at a collision energy of 2 GeV, 0.2 at 7 GeV, and 0.1 at 200 GeV or so.
Since the force field energy is independent of the kinetic energy (charges don't vary like masses do), conservation of energy for all the force field mediators would imply that the fall in the strength of the strong force would be accompanied by the rise in the strength of the electroweak force (which increases as the bare charge is exposed when the polarised vacuum shield breaks down in high energy collisions), which implies that forces unify exactly without needing supersymmetry (SUSY). What should be happening in physics is a modelling of the facts in a simple way, not inventing new models to predict unobservables and unification at unobservably high energy, but modelling what we can really measure, the loads of data on particle masses, cosmology, forces at low energy, etc. Once that is done, the resulting theory will clarify the mechanism for what happens at higher energy, i.e., whether superforce exists.
‘… the Heisenberg formulae can be most naturally interpreted as statistical scatter relations, as I proposed [in the 1934 German publication, ‘The Logic of Scientific Discovery’]. … There is, therefore, no reason whatever to accept either Heisenberg’s or Bohr’s subjectivist interpretation of quantum mechanics.’ – Sir Karl R. Popper, Objective Knowledge, Oxford University Press, 1979, p. 303. Note: statistical scatter gives the energy form of Heisenberg’s equation, since the vacuum is full of gauge bosons carrying momentum like light, and exerting vast pressure; this gives the foam vacuum.
I've just updated a previous post here with some comments on the distinction between the two aspects of the strong nuclear force, that between quarks (where the physics is very subtle, with interactions between the virtual quark field and the gluon field around quarks leading to a modification of the strong nuclear force and the effect of asymptotic freedom of quarks within hadrons), and that between one nucleon and another.
Nucleons are neutrons and protons, each containing three quarks, and the strong nuclear force between nucleons behaves as if neutrons are practically identical to protons (the electric charge is an electromagnetic force effect). Between individual quarks, the strong force is mediated by gluons and is more complex due to screening effects of the colour charges of the quarks, but between nucleons it is mediated by pions, and is very simple, as my previous post shows.
Consider why the nuclear forces short-ranged, unlike gravity and electromagnetism. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle in its time-energy form sets a limit to the amount of time a certain amount of energy (that of the fause-mediating particles) can exist. Because of the finite speed of light, this time limit is equivalent to a distance limit or range. This is why nuclear forces are short-ranged. Physically, the long-range forces (gravity and electromagnetism) are radiation exchange effects which aren't individually attenuated with distance, but just undergo geometric spreading over wider areas due to divergence (giving rise to the inverse-square law).
But the short-ranged nuclear forces are physically equivalent to a gas-type pressure of the vacuum. The 14.7 pounds/square inch air pressure doesn't push you against the walls, because air exists between you and the walls, and disperses kinetic energy as pressure isotropically (equally in all directions) due to the random scattering of air molecules. The range over which you are attracted to the wall due to the air pressure is around the average distance air molecules go between rancom scattering impacts, which is the mean free path of an air molecule, about 0.1 micron (micron = micrometre).
This is why to get 'attracted' to a wall using air pressure, you need a very smooth wall and a clean rubber suction cup: it is a short-ranged effect. The nuclear forces are similar to this in their basic mechanism, with a short range because of the collisions and interactions of the force-mediating particles, which are more like gas molecules than the radiations which give rise to gravity and electromagnetism. We know this for the electroweak theory, where at low energies the W and Z force mediators are screened by the foam vacuum of space, while the photon isn't.
Deceptions used to attack predictive, testable physical understanding of quantum mechanics: (1) metaphysically-vague entanglement of the wavefunctions of photons in Alain Aspect's ESP/EPR supposed experiment, which merely demonstrates a correlation in the polarisation of photons emitted from the same source in opposite directions and measured. This correlation is expected if Heisenberg's uncertainty principle does NOT apply to photon measurement. We know Heisenberg's uncertainty principle DOES apply to measuring electrons and other non-light speed particles, which have time to respond to the measurement by being deflected or changing state. Photons, however, must be absorbed and then re-emitted to change state or direction. Therefore, correlation of identical photon measurements is expected based on the failure of the uncertainty principle to apply to the measurement process of photons. It is hence entirely fraudulent to claim that the correlation is due to metaphysically-vague entanglement of wave functions of photons metres apart travelling in opposite directions. (2) Young's double slit experiment: Young falsely claimed that light somehow cancels out at the dark fringes on the screen. But we know energy is conserved. Light simply doesn’t arrive at the dark fringes (if it does, what happens to it, especially where you fire one photon at a time!!!!!!????). What really happens with light is interference near the double slits, not at the screen, which is not the case for water wave type interference (water waves are longitudinal so interfere at the screen, light waves have a transverse feature which allows interference to occur even when a single photon passes through one of two slits, if the second slit is nearby, i.e., within a wavelength or so!). (3) Restricted ('Special') Relativity:
"General relativity as a generalization of special relativity
"Some people are extremely confused about the nature of special relativity and they will tell you that the discovery of general relativity has revoked the constraints imposed by special relativity. But that's another extremely deep misunderstanding of physics. General relativity is called general relativity because it generalizes special relativity; it does not kill it. One of the fundamental pillars of general relativity is the equivalence principle that states that in locally inertial frames, the laws of special relativity must be satisfied by all local phenomena."
I just don't believe you [Lubos Motl] don't understand that general covariance in GR is the important principle, that accelerations are not relative and that all motions at least begin and end with acceleration/deceleration.
The radiation (gauge bosons) and virtual particles in the vacuum exert pressure on moving objects, compressing them in the direction of motion. As FitzGerald deduced in 1889, it is not a mathematical effect, but a physical one. Mass increase occurs because of the snowplow effect of Higgs boson (mass ahead of you) when you move quickly, since the Higgs bosons you are moving into can't instantly flow out of your path, so there is mass increase. If you were to approach c, the particles in the vacuum ahead of you would be unable to get out of your way, you'd be going so fast, so your mass would tend towards infinity. This is simply a physical effect, not a mathematical mystery. Time dilation occurs because time is measured by motion, and if as the Standard Model suggests, fundamental spinning particles are just trapped energy (mass being due to the external Higgs field), that energy is going at speed c, perhaps as a spinning loop or vibrating string. When you move that at near speed c, the internal vibration and/or spin speed will slow down, because c would be violated otherwise. Since electromagnetic radiation is a transverse wave, the internal motion at speed x is orthagonal to the direction of propagation at speed v, so x^2 + v^2 = c^2 by Pythagoras. Hence the dynamic measure of time (vibration or spin speed) for the particle is x/c = (1 - v^2/c^2)^1/2, which is the time-dilation formula.
As Eddington said, light speed is absolute but undetectable in the Michelson-Morley experiment owing to the fact the instrument contracts in the direction of motion, allowing the slower light beam to cross a smaller distance and thus catch up.
‘The Michelson-Morley experiment has thus failed to detect our motion through the aether, because the effect looked for – the delay of one of the light waves – is exactly compensated by an automatic contraction of the matter forming the apparatus…. The great stumbing-block for a philosophy which denies absolute space is the experimental detection of absolute rotation.’ – Professor A.S. Eddington (who confirmed Einstein’s general theory of relativity in 1919), Space Time and Gravitation: An Outline of the General Relativity Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1921, pp. 20, 152.
Einstein said the same:
‘Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity, space is endowed with physical qualities... According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable.’ – Albert Einstein, Leyden University lecture on ‘Ether and Relativity’, 1920. (Einstein, A., Sidelights on Relativity, Dover, New York, 1952, pp. 15-23.)
Maxwell failed to grasp that radiation (gauge bosons) was the mechanism for electric force fields, but he did usefully suggest that:
‘The ... action of magnetism on polarised light [discovered by Faraday not Maxwell] leads ... to the conclusion that in a medium ... is something belonging to the mathematical class as an angular velocity ... This ... cannot be that of any portion of the medium of sensible dimensions rotating as a whole. We must therefore conceive the rotation to be that of very small portions of the medium, each rotating on its own axis [spin] ... The displacements of the medium, during the propagation of light, will produce a disturbance of the vortices ... We shall therefore assume that the variation of vortices caused by the displacement of the medium is subject to the same conditions which Helmholtz, in his great memoir on Vortex-motion, has shewn to regulate the variation of the vortices [spin] of a perfect fluid.’ - Maxwell’s 1873 Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Articles 822-3
Compare this to the spin foam vacuum, and the fluid GR model:
‘… the source of the gravitational field can be taken to be a perfect fluid…. A fluid is a continuum that ‘flows’... A perfect fluid is defined as one in which all antislipping forces are zero, and the only force between neighboring fluid elements is pressure.’ – Professor Bernard Schutz, General Relativity, Cambridge University Press, 1986, pp. 89-90.
Einstein admitted SR was tragic:
‘The special theory of relativity … does not extend to non-uniform motion … The laws of physics must be of such a nature that they apply to systems of reference in any kind of motion. Along this road we arrive at an extension of the postulate of relativity… The general laws of nature are to be expressed by equations which hold good for all systems of co-ordinates, that is, are co-variant with respect to any substitutions whatever (generally co-variant). …’ – Albert Einstein, ‘The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity’, Annalen der Physik, v49, 1916.